General Information:

Id: 3,445
Diseases: Diabetes mellitus, type II - [OMIM]
Insulin resistance
Sus scrofa
male
article
Reference: Keller J et al.(2011) Effect of L-carnitine on the hepatic transcript profile in piglets as animal model Nutr Metab (Lond) 8: 76 [PMID: 22040461]

Interaction Information:

Comment Pigs supplemented with L-carnitine had approximately 10-fold higher concentrations of free and total carnitine in the liver than control pigs.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32133

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_quantity of

drug/chemical compound

Carnitine

in liver; 129.6 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32134

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

GSTA3

in liver; 129.6 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for GSTA3
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32135

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

GCK

in liver; 26.5 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for GCK
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32136

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

APOA4

in liver; 16.6 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32137

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

SENP6

in liver; 13.0 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32138

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

SPRY3

in liver; 11.8 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32139

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

R3HDM1

in liver; 11.3 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32140

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

PTGES3

in liver; 9.2 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32141

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

CYP2J2

in liver; 9.2 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32142

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

SMOC1

in liver; 8.5 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32143

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

USP1

in liver; 8.3 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32144

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

BPHL

in liver; 8.1 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for BPHL
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32145

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

CHL1

in liver; 7.6 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32146

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

GRM5

in liver; 7.5 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for GRM5
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32147

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

NEK7

in liver; 7.3 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32148

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

GLS

in liver; 6.8 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for GLS
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32149

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

KLHL8

in liver; -7.9 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32150

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

MEIS1

in liver; -6.6 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32151

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

MBL2

in liver; -5.8 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for MBL2
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32152

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

IGFBP1

in liver; -5.8 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32153

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

PCK1

in liver; -5.7 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PCK1
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown. A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32154

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

ESRRG

in liver; -5.3 fold microarray, -12.5 fold qPCR
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ESRRG
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32155

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

SLC18A2

in liver; -5.1 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for SLC18A2
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32156

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

ULK1

in liver; -5.0 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown. A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32157

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

KLHL24

in liver; -4.7 fold microarray, -3.3 fold qPCR
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32158

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

CCNG2

in liver; -4.7 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32159

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

NKAIN2

in liver; -4.2 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32160

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

OXR1

in liver; -4.2 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32161

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

EFNA1

in liver; -4.1 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32162

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

CD109

in liver; -4.1 fold
Comment A total of 638 probe sets were differentially expressed between the L-carnitine and the control group. Of these probe sets, 372 were up-regulated by L-carnitine and 266 probe sets were down-regulated by L-carnitine. The 15 most strongly up-regulated and down-regulated probe sets are shown.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32163

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

SPOCK1

in liver; -4.0 fold
Comment A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32164

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

ACSL3

in liver; 3.48 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACSL3
Comment A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32165

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

FBXL20

in liver; -14.3 fold
Comment A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32166

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

FBXL3

in liver; -4.4 fold
Comment A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32167

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

FBXO32

in liver; -3.4 fold
Comment A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32168

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

SLC2A8

in liver; 4.55 fold
Comment A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32169

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

GPD1

in liver; 3.11 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for GPD1
Comment A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32170

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

HECTD2

in liver; -4.6 fold
Comment A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32171

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

MTTP

in liver; 1.75 fold
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for MTTP
Comment A total of 14 genes were selected to validate the microarray data by the use of real-time RT-PCR. All tested genes were differentially expressed with microarray analysis, however 3 genes were not significant.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32172

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

USP10

in liver; -3.2 fold
Comment Gene term enrichment analysis revealed that the most frequent biological processes associated with L-carnitine supplementation were dealing with metabolic processes. This was not surprising considering that the main function of L-carnitine is to stimulate energy metabolism by acting as shuttling molecule for long-chain fatty acids which also enhances the metabolic flux of glucose through the glycolytic chain.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32173

environment

carnitine supplementation

affects_activity of

Comment Gene term enrichment analysis revealed that the most frequent biological processes associated with L-carnitine supplementation were dealing with metabolic processes. This was not surprising considering that the main function of L-carnitine is to stimulate energy metabolism by acting as shuttling molecule for long-chain fatty acids which also enhances the metabolic flux of glucose through the glycolytic chain.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32174

environment

carnitine supplementation

affects_activity of

Comment Gene term enrichment analysis revealed that the most frequent biological processes associated with L-carnitine supplementation were dealing with metabolic processes. This was not surprising considering that the main function of L-carnitine is to stimulate energy metabolism by acting as shuttling molecule for long-chain fatty acids which also enhances the metabolic flux of glucose through the glycolytic chain.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32175

environment

carnitine supplementation

affects_activity of

Comment Representative genes from one of these clusters dealing with metabolic processes (carboxylic acid metabolic process, oxoacid metabolic process, organic acid metabolic process) encoded proteins or enzymes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake (SLC27A6, solute carrier family 27/fatty acid transporter, member 6), fatty acid activation (ACSL3, Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3) and fatty acid beta-oxidation (ACADSB, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short/branched chain specific), and most of these genes including SLC27A6, ACSL3 and ACADSB were found to be significantly up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation by microarray analysis and confirmed by qPCR, a more sensitive method for gene expression analysis. The indicate that the stimulatory effect of carnitine on fatty acid beta-oxidation is at least partially mediated by stimulating the transcription of genes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake, fatty acid activation and beta-oxidation.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32176

gene/protein

ACSL3

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACSL3
Comment Representative genes from one of these clusters dealing with metabolic processes (carboxylic acid metabolic process, oxoacid metabolic process, organic acid metabolic process) encoded proteins or enzymes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake (SLC27A6, solute carrier family 27/fatty acid transporter, member 6), fatty acid activation (ACSL3, Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3) and fatty acid beta-oxidation (ACADSB, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short/branched chain specific), and most of these genes including SLC27A6, ACSL3 and ACADSB were found to be significantly up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation by microarray analysis and confirmed by qPCR, a more sensitive method for gene expression analysis. The indicate that the stimulatory effect of carnitine on fatty acid beta-oxidation is at least partially mediated by stimulating the transcription of genes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake, fatty acid activation and beta-oxidation.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32178

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

ACADSB

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACADSB
Comment Representative genes from one of these clusters dealing with metabolic processes (carboxylic acid metabolic process, oxoacid metabolic process, organic acid metabolic process) encoded proteins or enzymes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake (SLC27A6, solute carrier family 27/fatty acid transporter, member 6), fatty acid activation (ACSL3, Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3) and fatty acid beta-oxidation (ACADSB, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short/branched chain specific), and most of these genes including SLC27A6, ACSL3 and ACADSB were found to be significantly up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation by microarray analysis and confirmed by qPCR, a more sensitive method for gene expression analysis. The indicate that the stimulatory effect of carnitine on fatty acid beta-oxidation is at least partially mediated by stimulating the transcription of genes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake, fatty acid activation and beta-oxidation.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32179

gene/protein

ACADSB

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACADSB
Comment Representative genes from one of these clusters dealing with metabolic processes (carboxylic acid metabolic process, oxoacid metabolic process, organic acid metabolic process) encoded proteins or enzymes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake (SLC27A6, solute carrier family 27/fatty acid transporter, member 6), fatty acid activation (ACSL3, Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3) and fatty acid beta-oxidation (ACADSB, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short/branched chain specific), and most of these genes including SLC27A6, ACSL3 and ACADSB were found to be significantly up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation by microarray analysis and confirmed by qPCR, a more sensitive method for gene expression analysis. The indicate that the stimulatory effect of carnitine on fatty acid beta-oxidation is at least partially mediated by stimulating the transcription of genes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake, fatty acid activation and beta-oxidation.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32180

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_expression of

gene/protein

SLC27A6

Comment Representative genes from one of these clusters dealing with metabolic processes (carboxylic acid metabolic process, oxoacid metabolic process, organic acid metabolic process) encoded proteins or enzymes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake (SLC27A6, solute carrier family 27/fatty acid transporter, member 6), fatty acid activation (ACSL3, Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3) and fatty acid beta-oxidation (ACADSB, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short/branched chain specific), and most of these genes including SLC27A6, ACSL3 and ACADSB were found to be significantly up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation by microarray analysis and confirmed by qPCR, a more sensitive method for gene expression analysis. The indicate that the stimulatory effect of carnitine on fatty acid beta-oxidation is at least partially mediated by stimulating the transcription of genes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake, fatty acid activation and beta-oxidation.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32181

gene/protein

SLC27A6

affects_activity of

Comment Representative genes from one of these clusters dealing with metabolic processes (carboxylic acid metabolic process, oxoacid metabolic process, organic acid metabolic process) encoded proteins or enzymes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake (SLC27A6, solute carrier family 27/fatty acid transporter, member 6), fatty acid activation (ACSL3, Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3) and fatty acid beta-oxidation (ACADSB, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short/branched chain specific), and most of these genes including SLC27A6, ACSL3 and ACADSB were found to be significantly up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation by microarray analysis and confirmed by qPCR, a more sensitive method for gene expression analysis. The indicate that the stimulatory effect of carnitine on fatty acid beta-oxidation is at least partially mediated by stimulating the transcription of genes involved in cellular fatty acid uptake, fatty acid activation and beta-oxidation.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32182

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_activity of

Comment Clustering analysis further revealed that L-carnitine supplementation was significantly associated with biological processes involved in glucose metabolism, like glucose transport, conversion of glucose into glucose 6-phosphate, and glycolysis, and hexose biosynthetic processes, like gluconeogenesis. Representative genes included GLUT8 (glucose transporter type 8), GCK (Hexokinase D), GPD1 (Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and FBP2 (Fructose1,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 2). Moreover, the tandem enzyme PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3) which is responsible for maintaining the cellular levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the most potent allosteric activator of one of the key regulatory enzymes of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, was also identified to be differentially expressed by L-carnitine. All the genes dealing with glucose metabolism like GLUT8, GCK and GPD1 were markedly up-regulated, at least 4-fold, by the supplemental L-carnitine. GCK which is the predominant hexokinase isoenzyme in the liver phosphorylating glucose for subsequent metabolism by either glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt or glycogen synthesis was even induced 27-fold by L-carnitine supplementation - indicating that L-carnitine has a dramatic effect on glucose metabolism.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32183

environment

carnitine supplementation

affects_activity of

Comment Clustering analysis further revealed that L-carnitine supplementation was significantly associated with biological processes involved in glucose metabolism, like glucose transport, conversion of glucose into glucose 6-phosphate, and glycolysis, and hexose biosynthetic processes, like gluconeogenesis. Representative genes included GLUT8 (glucose transporter type 8), GCK (Hexokinase D), GPD1 (Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and FBP2 (Fructose1,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 2). Moreover, the tandem enzyme PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3) which is responsible for maintaining the cellular levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the most potent allosteric activator of one of the key regulatory enzymes of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, was also identified to be differentially expressed by L-carnitine. All the genes dealing with glucose metabolism like GLUT8, GCK and GPD1 were markedly up-regulated, at least 4-fold, by the supplemental L-carnitine. GCK which is the predominant hexokinase isoenzyme in the liver phosphorylating glucose for subsequent metabolism by either glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt or glycogen synthesis was even induced 27-fold by L-carnitine supplementation - indicating that L-carnitine has a dramatic effect on glucose metabolism.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32184

gene/protein

SLC2A8

affects_activity of

Comment Clustering analysis further revealed that L-carnitine supplementation was significantly associated with biological processes involved in glucose metabolism, like glucose transport, conversion of glucose into glucose 6-phosphate, and glycolysis, and hexose biosynthetic processes, like gluconeogenesis. Representative genes included GLUT8 (glucose transporter type 8), GCK (Hexokinase D), GPD1 (Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and FBP2 (Fructose1,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 2). Moreover, the tandem enzyme PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3) which is responsible for maintaining the cellular levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the most potent allosteric activator of one of the key regulatory enzymes of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, was also identified to be differentially expressed by L-carnitine. All the genes dealing with glucose metabolism like GLUT8, GCK and GPD1 were markedly up-regulated, at least 4-fold, by the supplemental L-carnitine. GCK which is the predominant hexokinase isoenzyme in the liver phosphorylating glucose for subsequent metabolism by either glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt or glycogen synthesis was even induced 27-fold by L-carnitine supplementation - indicating that L-carnitine has a dramatic effect on glucose metabolism.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32185

gene/protein

GPD1

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for GPD1
Comment Clustering analysis further revealed that L-carnitine supplementation was significantly associated with biological processes involved in glucose metabolism, like glucose transport, conversion of glucose into glucose 6-phosphate, and glycolysis, and hexose biosynthetic processes, like gluconeogenesis. Representative genes included GLUT8 (glucose transporter type 8), GCK (Hexokinase D), GPD1 (Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and FBP2 (Fructose1,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 2). Moreover, the tandem enzyme PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3) which is responsible for maintaining the cellular levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the most potent allosteric activator of one of the key regulatory enzymes of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, was also identified to be differentially expressed by L-carnitine. All the genes dealing with glucose metabolism like GLUT8, GCK and GPD1 were markedly up-regulated, at least 4-fold, by the supplemental L-carnitine. GCK which is the predominant hexokinase isoenzyme in the liver phosphorylating glucose for subsequent metabolism by either glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt or glycogen synthesis was even induced 27-fold by L-carnitine supplementation - indicating that L-carnitine has a dramatic effect on glucose metabolism.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32186

gene/protein

PCK1

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PCK1
Comment Clustering analysis further revealed that L-carnitine supplementation was significantly associated with biological processes involved in glucose metabolism, like glucose transport, conversion of glucose into glucose 6-phosphate, and glycolysis, and hexose biosynthetic processes, like gluconeogenesis. Representative genes included GLUT8 (glucose transporter type 8), GCK (Hexokinase D), GPD1 (Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and FBP2 (Fructose1,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 2). Moreover, the tandem enzyme PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3) which is responsible for maintaining the cellular levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the most potent allosteric activator of one of the key regulatory enzymes of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, was also identified to be differentially expressed by L-carnitine. All the genes dealing with glucose metabolism like GLUT8, GCK and GPD1 were markedly up-regulated, at least 4-fold, by the supplemental L-carnitine. GCK which is the predominant hexokinase isoenzyme in the liver phosphorylating glucose for subsequent metabolism by either glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt or glycogen synthesis was even induced 27-fold by L-carnitine supplementation - indicating that L-carnitine has a dramatic effect on glucose metabolism.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32187

gene/protein

FBP2

affects_activity of

Comment Clustering analysis further revealed that L-carnitine supplementation was significantly associated with biological processes involved in glucose metabolism, like glucose transport, conversion of glucose into glucose 6-phosphate, and glycolysis, and hexose biosynthetic processes, like gluconeogenesis. Representative genes included GLUT8 (glucose transporter type 8), GCK (Hexokinase D), GPD1 (Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and FBP2 (Fructose1,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 2). Moreover, the tandem enzyme PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3) which is responsible for maintaining the cellular levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the most potent allosteric activator of one of the key regulatory enzymes of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, was also identified to be differentially expressed by L-carnitine. All the genes dealing with glucose metabolism like GLUT8, GCK and GPD1 were markedly up-regulated, at least 4-fold, by the supplemental L-carnitine. GCK which is the predominant hexokinase isoenzyme in the liver phosphorylating glucose for subsequent metabolism by either glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt or glycogen synthesis was even induced 27-fold by L-carnitine supplementation - indicating that L-carnitine has a dramatic effect on glucose metabolism.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32188

gene/protein

PFKFB3

affects_activity of

Comment Clustering analysis further revealed that L-carnitine supplementation was significantly associated with biological processes involved in glucose metabolism, like glucose transport, conversion of glucose into glucose 6-phosphate, and glycolysis, and hexose biosynthetic processes, like gluconeogenesis. Representative genes included GLUT8 (glucose transporter type 8), GCK (Hexokinase D), GPD1 (Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and FBP2 (Fructose1,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 2). Moreover, the tandem enzyme PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3) which is responsible for maintaining the cellular levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the most potent allosteric activator of one of the key regulatory enzymes of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, was also identified to be differentially expressed by L-carnitine. All the genes dealing with glucose metabolism like GLUT8, GCK and GPD1 were markedly up-regulated, at least 4-fold, by the supplemental L-carnitine. GCK which is the predominant hexokinase isoenzyme in the liver phosphorylating glucose for subsequent metabolism by either glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt or glycogen synthesis was even induced 27-fold by L-carnitine supplementation - indicating that L-carnitine has a dramatic effect on glucose metabolism.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32189

environment

carnitine supplementation

affects_expression of

gene/protein

PFKFB3

Comment Clustering analysis further revealed that L-carnitine supplementation was significantly associated with biological processes involved in glucose metabolism, like glucose transport, conversion of glucose into glucose 6-phosphate, and glycolysis, and hexose biosynthetic processes, like gluconeogenesis. Representative genes included GLUT8 (glucose transporter type 8), GCK (Hexokinase D), GPD1 (Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and FBP2 (Fructose1,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 2). Moreover, the tandem enzyme PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3) which is responsible for maintaining the cellular levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the most potent allosteric activator of one of the key regulatory enzymes of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, was also identified to be differentially expressed by L-carnitine. All the genes dealing with glucose metabolism like GLUT8, GCK and GPD1 were markedly up-regulated, at least 4-fold, by the supplemental L-carnitine. GCK which is the predominant hexokinase isoenzyme in the liver phosphorylating glucose for subsequent metabolism by either glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt or glycogen synthesis was even induced 27-fold by L-carnitine supplementation - indicating that L-carnitine has a dramatic effect on glucose metabolism.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32190

gene/protein

GCK

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for GCK
Comment In contrast to the genes involved in glucose metabolism, genes involved in gluconeogenesis, like PCK1 and FBP2 were significantly down-regulated in the liver of piglets by L-carnitine supplementation. This indicates that the positive effect of carnitine on glucose utilization is explained not only by stimulation of glycolysis but also suppression of gluconeogenesis in the liver.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32191

gene/protein

PCK1

increases_activity of

process

gluconeogenesis

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PCK1
Comment In contrast to the genes involved in glucose metabolism, genes involved in gluconeogenesis, like PCK1 and FBP2 were significantly down-regulated in the liver of piglets by L-carnitine supplementation. This indicates that the positive effect of carnitine on glucose utilization is explained not only by stimulation of glycolysis but also suppression of gluconeogenesis in the liver.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32192

gene/protein

FBP2

increases_activity of

process

gluconeogenesis

Comment In contrast to the genes involved in glucose metabolism, genes involved in gluconeogenesis, like PCK1 and FBP2 were significantly down-regulated in the liver of piglets by L-carnitine supplementation. This indicates that the positive effect of carnitine on glucose utilization is explained not only by stimulation of glycolysis but also suppression of gluconeogenesis in the liver.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32193

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_activity of

process

gluconeogenesis

Comment In contrast to the genes involved in glucose metabolism, genes involved in gluconeogenesis, like PCK1 and FBP2 were significantly down-regulated in the liver of piglets by L-carnitine supplementation. This indicates that the positive effect of carnitine on glucose utilization is explained not only by stimulation of glycolysis but also suppression of gluconeogenesis in the liver.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32194

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_activity of

Comment The observations that GPAT (which esterifies acyl-groups from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis) was down-regulated, whereas MTTP (which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces, and is required for the secretion of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins from the liver) and genes involved in fatty acid catabolism (SLC27A6, ACSL3, ACADSB) were up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation in the liver of the piglets, confirmed by qPCR. Thus inhibition of glycerolipid biosynthesis and stimulation of lipoprotein secretion and fatty acid catabolism may contribute to the decreased liver lipids in rodents fed L-carnitine.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32195

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

GPAT

Comment The observations that GPAT (which esterifies acyl-groups from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis) was down-regulated, whereas MTTP (which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces, and is required for the secretion of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins from the liver) and genes involved in fatty acid catabolism (SLC27A6, ACSL3, ACADSB) were up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation in the liver of the piglets, confirmed by qPCR. Thus inhibition of glycerolipid biosynthesis and stimulation of lipoprotein secretion and fatty acid catabolism may contribute to the decreased liver lipids in rodents fed L-carnitine.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32196

gene/protein

MTTP

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for MTTP
Comment The observations that GPAT (which esterifies acyl-groups from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis) was down-regulated, whereas MTTP (which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces, and is required for the secretion of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins from the liver) and genes involved in fatty acid catabolism (SLC27A6, ACSL3, ACADSB) were up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation in the liver of the piglets, confirmed by qPCR. Thus inhibition of glycerolipid biosynthesis and stimulation of lipoprotein secretion and fatty acid catabolism may contribute to the decreased liver lipids in rodents fed L-carnitine.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32197

gene/protein

SLC27A6

affects_activity of

Comment The observations that GPAT (which esterifies acyl-groups from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis) was down-regulated, whereas MTTP (which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces, and is required for the secretion of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins from the liver) and genes involved in fatty acid catabolism (SLC27A6, ACSL3, ACADSB) were up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation in the liver of the piglets, confirmed by qPCR. Thus inhibition of glycerolipid biosynthesis and stimulation of lipoprotein secretion and fatty acid catabolism may contribute to the decreased liver lipids in rodents fed L-carnitine.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32198

gene/protein

ACSL3

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACSL3
Comment The observations that GPAT (which esterifies acyl-groups from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis) was down-regulated, whereas MTTP (which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces, and is required for the secretion of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins from the liver) and genes involved in fatty acid catabolism (SLC27A6, ACSL3, ACADSB) were up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation in the liver of the piglets, confirmed by qPCR. Thus inhibition of glycerolipid biosynthesis and stimulation of lipoprotein secretion and fatty acid catabolism may contribute to the decreased liver lipids in rodents fed L-carnitine.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32199

gene/protein

ACADSB

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACADSB
Comment The observations that GPAT (which esterifies acyl-groups from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis) was down-regulated, whereas MTTP (which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces, and is required for the secretion of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins from the liver) and genes involved in fatty acid catabolism (SLC27A6, ACSL3, ACADSB) were up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation in the liver of the piglets, confirmed by qPCR. Thus inhibition of glycerolipid biosynthesis and stimulation of lipoprotein secretion and fatty acid catabolism may contribute to the decreased liver lipids in rodents fed L-carnitine.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32200

gene/protein

ACADSB

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACADSB
Comment The observations that GPAT (which esterifies acyl-groups from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis) was down-regulated, whereas MTTP (which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces, and is required for the secretion of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins from the liver) and genes involved in fatty acid catabolism (SLC27A6, ACSL3, ACADSB) were up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation in the liver of the piglets, confirmed by qPCR. Thus inhibition of glycerolipid biosynthesis and stimulation of lipoprotein secretion and fatty acid catabolism may contribute to the decreased liver lipids in rodents fed L-carnitine.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32201

environment

carnitine supplementation

increases_activity of

Comment The observations that GPAT (which esterifies acyl-groups from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis) was down-regulated, whereas MTTP (which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces, and is required for the secretion of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins from the liver) and genes involved in fatty acid catabolism (SLC27A6, ACSL3, ACADSB) were up-regulated by L-carnitine supplementation in the liver of the piglets, confirmed by qPCR. Thus inhibition of glycerolipid biosynthesis and stimulation of lipoprotein secretion and fatty acid catabolism may contribute to the decreased liver lipids in rodents fed L-carnitine.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32202

environment

carnitine supplementation

decreases_activity of

Comment Besides metabolic processes, clustering analysis revealed that biological processes dealing with posttranscriptional RNA processing (mRNA splicing, ribosomal RNA processing, non-coding RNA processing) were significantly associated with L-carnitine supplementation. Almost all of these genes were significantly up-regulated in the liver of the piglets by the supplemental L-carnitine indicating that the biological functions exerted by the encoded proteins are stimulated by L-carnitine.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 32203

environment

carnitine supplementation

affects_activity of

process

RNA processing