General Information:

Id: 964 (click here to show other Interactions for entry)
Diseases: Diabetes mellitus, type II - [OMIM]
Insulin resistance
Obesity - [OMIM]
Mammalia
review
Reference: Frojdo S et al.(2009) Alterations of insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes: a review of the current evidence from humans Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2: 83-92 [PMID: 19041393]

Interaction Information:

Comment Alterations of the activation status of the proximal insulin signaling enzymes (IR, IRS1/2, PI3K), and downstream targets (PDK, PKB and its targets GSK-3 and AS160, aPKCs, and MAPK-family protein kinases) have been studied in muscle and adipose tissue from insulin resistant, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects, and the underlying insulin resistance has been attributed to defects in one or more steps of the insulin signaling cascade.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 6051

affects_activity of

disease

Insulin resistance

Comment While PKB-alpha is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, the activation of glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, and in insulin action in adipose cells, it is PKB-beta (the major isoform expressed in skeletal muscle) that is considered to be the key isoform involved in insulin metabolic actions.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 6249

gene/protein

AKT1

affects_activity of

in adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for AKT1
Comment While PKB-alpha is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, the activation of glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, and in insulin action in adipose cells, it is PKB-beta (the major isoform expressed in skeletal muscle) that is considered to be the key isoform involved in insulin metabolic actions.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 6251

gene/protein

AKT2

affects_activity of

in muscle
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for AKT2
Comment The action of insulin is initiated by binding to its cognate receptor and activation of the receptor's intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity, resulting in the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues located in the cytoplasmic face.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 73819

complex/PPI

Insulin receptor

increases_activity of