General Information:

Id: 952
Diseases: Alzheimer disease - [OMIM]
Mammalia
review
Reference: Han W and Li C(2010) Linking type 2 diabetes and Alzheimers disease Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107: 6557-6558 [PMID: 20385830]

Interaction Information:

Comment Hypothesis: Central insulin resistance, together with reduced brain insulin levels that might have resulted from T2D, leads to accumulation of beta-amyloid and, consequently, AD.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5798

none selected

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Comment Hypothesis: Inflammation accelerates the development of T2D. Cerebrovascular and central inflammation, along with increased accumulation of beta-amyloid, disrupts normal synaptic function, a starting point of AD pathological progression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5799

none selected

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Comment Hypothesis: For many years, researchers have focused on the insoluble deposits of amyloid fibrils as the leading cause of memory loss and as the culprit of AD. More recent findings, however, suggest soluble Abeta oligomers may be the cause of memory loss, especially in the early stages of AD, because Abeta oligomers inhibit long-term potentiation in neurons, a well-adopted experimental paradigm for learning and memory.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5810

none selected

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Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5813

complex/PPI

Insulin

affects_activity of

gene/protein

BACE1

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Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5822

gene/protein

LEP

affects_activity of

gene/protein

BACE1

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for BACE1
Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5823

complex/PPI

Insulin

affects_activity of

Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5824

gene/protein

LEP

affects_activity of

Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5825

complex/PPI

Insulin

affects_processing of

gene/protein

APP

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Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5826

gene/protein

LEP

affects_processing of

gene/protein

APP

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for APP
Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5827

complex/PPI

Insulin

affects_quantity of

gene/protein

Amyloid beta peptide

Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5828

gene/protein

LEP

affects_quantity of

gene/protein

Amyloid beta peptide

Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5831

complex/PPI

Insulin

affects_activity of

gene/protein

IDE

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IDE
Comment Insulin and leptin regulate Abeta levels by modulating Abeta production via their actions on BACE and/or gamma-secretase, as well as by modulating Abeta degradation via Abeta-degrading enzymes, such as insulin-degrading enzyme.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5832

gene/protein

LEP

affects_activity of

gene/protein

IDE

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Comment Hypothesis: Insulin actions or their lack may be a link between T2D and AD. Some refer to AD as type 3 diabetes to emphasize the potential endocrine links between these diseases.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5842

none selected

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Comment Hypothesis: Peripheral impairment of insulin signaling causes T2D and central impairment leads to AD.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5846

none selected

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Comment Diabetes accelerates the appearance of cerebrovascular inflammation and Abeta deposition, as evidenced by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, as well as dense amyloid deposits in blood vessels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5848

increases_activity of

phenotype

increased IL6 level

in brain
Comment Diabetes accelerates the appearance of cerebrovascular inflammation and Abeta deposition, as evidenced by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- alpha, as well as dense amyloid deposits in blood vessels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5856

increases_activity of

phenotype

increased TNF level

in blood vessels
Comment Diabetes accelerates the appearance of cerebrovascular inflammation and Abeta deposition, as evidenced by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- alpha, as well as dense amyloid deposits in blood vessels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5859

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

IL6

in blood vessels
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IL6
Comment Diabetes accelerates the appearance of cerebrovascular inflammation and Abeta deposition, as evidenced by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- alpha, as well as dense amyloid deposits in blood vessels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 5860

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

TNF

in blood vessels
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for TNF
Comment Diabetes accelerates the appearance of cerebrovascular inflammation and Abeta deposition, as evidenced by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- alpha, as well as dense amyloid deposits in blood vessels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 50505

increases_quantity of

in blood vessels