General Information:

Id: 7,157
Diseases: Diabetes mellitus, type I - [OMIM]
Diabetes mellitus, type II - [OMIM]
Insulin resistance
Nephronophthisis 7 - [OMIM]
Mammalia
review
Reference: [PMID: 22391303]

Interaction Information:

Comment Transcriptional regulation by transcription factors is mediated through their interaction with co-activator and co-repressor complexes. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) has been reported to interact with both the N-and C-terminus of Glis2. CtBP1 interacts with and functions as a co-repressor for a number of transcription factors. It mediates transcriptional repression by recruiting proteins with various histone modifying enzymatic activities, including histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone lysine methyl transferases. HDAC3 has been identified as part of a Glis2-CtBP1 complex and may contribute to the ability of Glis2 to act as a transcriptional repressor.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70402

gene/protein

GLIS2

is_part_of

complex/PPI

GLIS2 transcriptional repressor complex

Comment Transcriptional regulation by transcription factors is mediated through their interaction with co-activator and co-repressor complexes. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) has been reported to interact with both the N-and C-terminus of Glis2. CtBP1 interacts with and functions as a co-repressor for a number of transcription factors. It mediates transcriptional repression by recruiting proteins with various histone modifying enzymatic activities, including histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone lysine methyl transferases. HDAC3 has been identified as part of a Glis2-CtBP1 complex and may contribute to the ability of Glis2 to act as a transcriptional repressor.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70430

gene/protein

CTBP1

is_part_of

complex/PPI

GLIS2 transcriptional repressor complex

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for CTBP1
Comment Transcriptional regulation by transcription factors is mediated through their interaction with co-activator and co-repressor complexes. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) has been reported to interact with both the N-and C-terminus of Glis2. CtBP1 interacts with and functions as a co-repressor for a number of transcription factors. It mediates transcriptional repression by recruiting proteins with various histone modifying enzymatic activities, including histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone lysine methyl transferases. HDAC3 has been identified as part of a Glis2-CtBP1 complex and may contribute to the ability of Glis2 to act as a transcriptional repressor.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70431

gene/protein

HDAC3

is_part_of

complex/PPI

GLIS2 transcriptional repressor complex

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for HDAC3
Comment Glis2 has also been reported to interact with p120 catenin (p120ctn) and to promote its nuclear localization. Interaction with p120ctn was found to induce a Src kinase-dependent cleavage of Glis2 between zinc fingers 4 and 5. P120ctn has been reported to be bound to E-cadherin at cell-cell contacts and can also be associated with microtubules. Over-expression of E-cadherin resulted in a reduction of Glis2 cleavage, while the induction of microtubule depolymerization enhanced Glis3 cleavage. Taken together, this suggests that p120ctn must be free in the cytosol to interact with Glis2.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70432

gene/protein

GLIS2

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

CTNND1

in the cytosol
Comment P120 catenin (p120ctn) a member of the Armadillo family of proteins, has emerged as a regulator of the transcriptional activity of the transcription factor Kaiso. Because of its association with Kaiso, p120ctn has also been implicated as a modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70433

gene/protein

CTNND1

affects_activity of

gene/protein

ZBTB33

Comment P120 catenin (p120ctn) a member of the Armadillo family of proteins, has emerged as a regulator of the transcriptional activity of the transcription factor Kaiso. Because of its association with Kaiso, p120ctn has also been implicated as a modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70434

gene/protein

CTNND1

affects_activity of

Comment Glis2 interacts with the armadillo repeats of beta-catenin via its first zinc finger, beta-catenin is an integral component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and in combination with T- cell factor/Lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF), positively regulates Wnt target genes. Glis2 acts as a negative regulator of beta-catenin and subsequently inhibits TCF/LEF signaling and the beta-catenin-TCF/LEF mediated activation of cyclin D1.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70435

gene/protein

GLIS2

decreases_activity of

gene/protein

CTNNB1

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for CTNNB1
Comment Glis3 was reported to interact with the tumor suppressor and negative regulator of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, Suppressor of Fused (SUFU), via a YGH motif.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70436

gene/protein

GLIS3

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

SUFU

Comment Glis3 protein levels are stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, suggesting that Glis3 is targeted for proteolytic degradation by the 26S proteasome. The E3-ubiquitin ligase scaffolding protein, Cullin 3 (Cul3) was shown to associate with the Glis3 N-terminus and its over-expression enhanced Glis3 polyubiquitination in cultured cells. SUFU, conversely, inhibited Glis3-Cul3 interaction and decreased the level of Glis3 polyubiquitination, thereby stabilizing Glis3 protein levels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70437

gene/protein

CUL3

increases_ubiquitination/sumoylation of

gene/protein

GLIS3

Comment Glis3 protein levels are stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, suggesting that Glis3 is targeted for proteolytic degradation by the 26S proteasome. The E3-ubiquitin ligase scaffolding protein, Cullin 3 (Cul3) was shown to associate with the Glis3 N-terminus and its over-expression enhanced Glis3 polyubiquitination in cultured cells. SUFU, conversely, inhibited Glis3-Cul3 interaction and decreased the level of Glis3 polyubiquitination, thereby stabilizing Glis3 protein levels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70438

gene/protein

SUFU

decreases_ubiquitination/sumoylation of

gene/protein

GLIS3

via decreased GLIS3-CUL3 interaction
Comment SUFU interacts with the C-terminus of Glis2, the effects do not appear to influence Glis2 protein stability or transactivation function.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70439

gene/protein

SUFU

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

GLIS2

Comment SUFU has been reported to interact with members of the GLI family and shown to regulate the stability and processing of GLI2 and GLI3 into repressor or activator forms.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70440

gene/protein

SUFU

affects_activity of

gene/protein

GLI2

Comment SUFU has been reported to interact with members of the GLI family and shown to regulate the stability and processing of GLI2 and GLI3 into repressor or activator forms.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70441

gene/protein

SUFU

affects_activity of

gene/protein

GLI3

Comment SUFU restrains Gli3 in the cytoplasm, promoting its processing into a repressor, while initiation of hedgehog signaling triggers the dissociation of SUFU and promotes the translocation of the activated form into the nucleus.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70442

increases_transport of

gene/protein

GLI3

into the nucleus
Comment SUFU has been reported to interact with beta-catenin to negatively regulate TCF/LEF signaling.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70443

gene/protein

SUFU

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

CTNNB1

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for CTNNB1
Comment Glis3 has been reported to interact with the key insulin transcriptional regulatory factors, pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), and NeuroD1 resulting in synergistic activation of Ins2.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70444

gene/protein

GLIS3

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

PDX1

Comment Glis3 has been reported to interact with the key insulin transcriptional regulatory factors, pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), and NeuroD1 resulting in synergistic activation of Ins2.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70445

gene/protein

GLIS3

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

MAFA

Comment Glis3 has been reported to interact with the key insulin transcriptional regulatory factors, pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), and NeuroD1 resulting in synergistic activation of Ins2.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70446

gene/protein

GLIS3

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

NEUROD1

Comment Glis3 is able to interact with the transcriptional co-regulator, transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ, also known as WWTR1) through a PPXY site within the Glis3 C-terminus. The interaction between Glis3 and TAZ and the observation that loss of either TAZ or Glis3 expression lead to polycystic kidney disease suggest a possible common link in the development of this phenotype.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70447

gene/protein

GLIS3

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

WWTR1

Comment TAZ is part of the Hippo signaling pathway that has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, EMT, and planar cell polarity (PCP), cellular processes that have been implicated in the formation of polycystic kidneys. Thus, disruption in Glis3-TAZ interaction might result in defects in these functions and be causally involved in the development of polycystic kidneys.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70448

gene/protein

WWTR1

affects_activity of

process

hippo signaling

Comment In addition to the nucleus, both Glis2 and Glis3 have been reported to localize to the primary cilium.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70449

gene/protein

GLIS2

is localized in

cellular component

nucleus

Comment In addition to the nucleus, both Glis2 and Glis3 have been reported to localize to the primary cilium.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70450

gene/protein

GLIS2

is localized in

cellular component

cilium

Comment In addition to the nucleus, both Glis2 and Glis3 have been reported to localize to the primary cilium.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70451

gene/protein

GLIS3

is localized in

cellular component

nucleus

Comment In addition to the nucleus, both Glis2 and Glis3 have been reported to localize to the primary cilium.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70452

gene/protein

GLIS3

is localized in

cellular component

cilium

Comment G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including somatostatin receptor 3 (Sstr3), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (Mchr1), and serotonin receptor 6 (Htr6), have been reported to localize to the ciliary membrane in various cell types.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70453

gene/protein

SSTR3

is localized in

cellular component

ciliary membrane

Comment G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including somatostatin receptor 3 (Sstr3), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (Mchr1), and serotonin receptor 6 (Htr6), have been reported to localize to the ciliary membrane in various cell types.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70454

gene/protein

MCHR1

is localized in

cellular component

ciliary membrane

Comment G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including somatostatin receptor 3 (Sstr3), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (Mchr1), and serotonin receptor 6 (Htr6), have been reported to localize to the ciliary membrane in various cell types.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70455

gene/protein

HTR6

is localized in

cellular component

ciliary membrane

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for HTR6
Comment In the absence of Shh, its receptor Patched (Ptch1) is localized to the primary cilium and prevents ciliary localization of Smoothened (Smo). Shh binding to Ptch1 results in its exit from the ciliary compartment and relieves repression of Smo, allowing it to enter the cilium. The mutually exclusive presence of Ptch1 or Smo in the cilium regulates the processing of Gli3 into its activator or repressor forms.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70456

gene/protein

PTCH1

affects_activity of

gene/protein

GLI3

Comment In the absence of Shh, its receptor Patched (Ptch1) is localized to the primary cilium and prevents ciliary localization of Smoothened (Smo). Shh binding to Ptch1 results in its exit from the ciliary compartment and relieves repression of Smo, allowing it to enter the cilium. The mutually exclusive presence of Ptch1 or Smo in the cilium regulates the processing of Gli3 into its activator or repressor forms.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70457

gene/protein

SMO

affects_activity of

gene/protein

GLI3

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for SMO
Comment Gene expression profile analysis of kidneys from Glis2-null and wild-type mice revealed increased expression of a number of genes that play a critical role in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), including transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-beta), vimentin, matrix metallopeptidase 14 (Mmp14), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), Snail, and Slug. These data suggested that the induction of renal fibrosis in Glis2-null mice is mediated through EMT in renal tubule epithelial cells. These observations further implied that Glis2 may act as a repressor of EMT and EMT-related gene expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70458

gene/protein

GLIS2

affects_expression of

gene/protein

TGFB1

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for TGFB1
Comment Gene expression profile analysis of kidneys from Glis2-null and wild-type mice revealed increased expression of a number of genes that play a critical role in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), including transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-beta), vimentin, matrix metallopeptidase 14 (Mmp14), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), Snail, and Slug. These data suggested that the induction of renal fibrosis in Glis2-null mice is mediated through EMT in renal tubule epithelial cells. These observations further implied that Glis2 may act as a repressor of EMT and EMT-related gene expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70459

gene/protein

GLIS2

affects_expression of

gene/protein

VIM

Comment Gene expression profile analysis of kidneys from Glis2-null and wild-type mice revealed increased expression of a number of genes that play a critical role in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), including transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-beta), vimentin, matrix metallopeptidase 14 (Mmp14), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), Snail, and Slug. These data suggested that the induction of renal fibrosis in Glis2-null mice is mediated through EMT in renal tubule epithelial cells. These observations further implied that Glis2 may act as a repressor of EMT and EMT-related gene expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70460

gene/protein

GLIS2

affects_expression of

gene/protein

MMP14

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for MMP14
Comment Gene expression profile analysis of kidneys from Glis2-null and wild-type mice revealed increased expression of a number of genes that play a critical role in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), including transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-beta), vimentin, matrix metallopeptidase 14 (Mmp14), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), Snail, and Slug. These data suggested that the induction of renal fibrosis in Glis2-null mice is mediated through EMT in renal tubule epithelial cells. These observations further implied that Glis2 may act as a repressor of EMT and EMT-related gene expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70461

gene/protein

GLIS2

affects_expression of

gene/protein

CCN2

Comment Gene expression profile analysis of kidneys from Glis2-null and wild-type mice revealed increased expression of a number of genes that play a critical role in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), including transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-beta), vimentin, matrix metallopeptidase 14 (Mmp14), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), Snail, and Slug. These data suggested that the induction of renal fibrosis in Glis2-null mice is mediated through EMT in renal tubule epithelial cells. These observations further implied that Glis2 may act as a repressor of EMT and EMT-related gene expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70462

gene/protein

GLIS2

affects_expression of

gene/protein

SNAI1

Comment Gene expression profile analysis of kidneys from Glis2-null and wild-type mice revealed increased expression of a number of genes that play a critical role in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), including transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-beta), vimentin, matrix metallopeptidase 14 (Mmp14), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), Snail, and Slug. These data suggested that the induction of renal fibrosis in Glis2-null mice is mediated through EMT in renal tubule epithelial cells. These observations further implied that Glis2 may act as a repressor of EMT and EMT-related gene expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70463

gene/protein

GLIS2

affects_expression of

gene/protein

SNAI2

Comment In humans, mutations in the gene encoding GLIS3 are associated with a rare syndrome characterized by neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism. Depending on the nature of the mutation, additional features include hepatic fibrosis, congenital glaucoma, polycystic kidney disease, facial dysmorphism, bilateral sensorineural deafness, and osteopenia.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70464

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_activity of

Comment According to several human genome-wide association studies (GWAS), GLIS3 has also been linked to aberrant glucose regulation and reduced beta-cell function, and was identified as a risk locus for both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. In accordance with the human studies, two independent laboratories have reported that Glis3-null mice developed neonatal diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70465

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_activity of

Comment According to several human genome-wide association studies (GWAS), GLIS3 has also been linked to aberrant glucose regulation and reduced beta-cell function, and was identified as a risk locus for both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. In accordance with the human studies, two independent laboratories have reported that Glis3-null mice developed neonatal diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70466

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_activity of

Comment According to several human genome-wide association studies (GWAS), GLIS3 has also been linked to aberrant glucose regulation and reduced beta-cell function, and was identified as a risk locus for both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. In accordance with the human studies, two independent laboratories have reported that Glis3-null mice developed neonatal diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70467

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_activity of

Comment According to several human genome-wide association studies (GWAS), GLIS3 has also been linked to aberrant glucose regulation and reduced beta-cell function, and was identified as a risk locus for both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. In accordance with the human studies, two independent laboratories have reported that Glis3-null mice developed neonatal diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70468

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_activity of

Comment The islets of Langerhans, produce and secrete various hormones, including glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, and ghrelin from alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon cells, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70469

tissue/cell line

pancreatic alpha cell

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

Glucagon

in pancreatic islets
Comment The islets of Langerhans, produce and secrete various hormones, including glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, and ghrelin from alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon cells, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70470

tissue/cell line

pancreatic beta cell

increases_quantity of

complex/PPI

Insulin

in pancreatic islets
Comment The islets of Langerhans, produce and secrete various hormones, including glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, and ghrelin from alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon cells, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70471

tissue/cell line

pancreatic PP cell

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

Pancreatic hormone

in pancreatic islets
Comment The islets of Langerhans, produce and secrete various hormones, including glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, and ghrelin from alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon cells, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70472

tissue/cell line

pancreatic delta cell

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

Somatostatin

in pancreatic islets
Comment The islets of Langerhans, produce and secrete various hormones, including glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, and ghrelin from alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon cells, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70473

tissue/cell line

pancreatic epsilon cell

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

Ghrelin

in pancreatic islets
Comment Glis2 and Glis3 are highly expressed in pancreatic islets, specifically in the insulin-producing beta-cells.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70474

gene/protein

GLIS2

is_expressed_in

tissue/cell line

pancreatic beta cell

Comment Glis2 and Glis3 are highly expressed in pancreatic islets, specifically in the insulin-producing beta-cells.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70475

gene/protein

GLIS3

is_expressed_in

tissue/cell line

pancreatic beta cell

Comment Glis3 is highly expressed in the pancreatic ducts through which the secretory enzymes are transported into the gastrointestinal tract.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70476

gene/protein

GLIS3

is_expressed_in

tissue/cell line

pancreatic duct

Comment Activation of Hh signaling induced Pdx1-dependent insulin expression and the expression of insulin was decreased in pancreas-specific Smo-null mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70477

increases_expression of

gene/protein

INS

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for INS
Comment Pdx1, NeuroD, MafA, and Pax4/6 regulate the expression of the insulin gene through their binding the A-box, E-box, C-box, and C2 element of the insulin promoter, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70478

gene/protein

PDX1

affects_expression of

gene/protein

INS

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for INS
Comment Pdx1, NeuroD, MafA, and Pax4/6 regulate the expression of the insulin gene through their binding the A-box, E-box, C-box, and C2 element of the insulin promoter, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70479

gene/protein

NEUROD1

affects_expression of

gene/protein

INS

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for INS
Comment Pdx1, NeuroD, MafA, and Pax4/6 regulate the expression of the insulin gene through their binding the A-box, E-box, C-box, and C2 element of the insulin promoter, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70480

gene/protein

MAFA

affects_expression of

gene/protein

INS

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for INS
Comment Pdx1, NeuroD, MafA, and Pax4/6 regulate the expression of the insulin gene through their binding the A-box, E-box, C-box, and C2 element of the insulin promoter, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70481

gene/protein

PAX4

affects_expression of

gene/protein

INS

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for INS
Comment Pdx1, NeuroD, MafA, and Pax4/6 regulate the expression of the insulin gene through their binding the A-box, E-box, C-box, and C2 element of the insulin promoter, respectively.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70482

gene/protein

PAX6

affects_expression of

gene/protein

INS

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for INS
Comment Promoter analysis showed that the human INS and mouse Ins2 genes contain 2 well-conserved GlisBS within 600 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. In vitro DNA binding assays and cell-based reporter gene assays provided further support that Glis3 directly regulates the expression of human and mouse insulin genes through these 2 GlisBS sequences.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70483

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_expression of

gene/protein

INS

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for INS
Comment Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was impaired in the islets of MafA-null compared to wild-type mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70484
Comment In the skin, Glis1 mRNA expression was detected in the dermal papilla, but not in normal human epidermis. However, Glis1 expression was significantly induced in psoriatic epidermis where its expression was associated with the suprabasal, differentiated layers.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70485

disease

Psoriasis

increases_expression of

gene/protein

GLIS1

in epidermis
Comment In addition to diabetes and polycystic kidney disease, patients with aberrant Glis3 expression also develop congenital hypothyroidism that is accompanied by reduced levels of T3 and T4 and elevated blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin. Similarly, hypothyroidism was observed in Glis3-null mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70486

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_activity of

Comment In addition to diabetes and polycystic kidney disease, patients with aberrant Glis3 expression also develop congenital hypothyroidism that is accompanied by reduced levels of T3 and T4 and elevated blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin. Similarly, hypothyroidism was observed in Glis3-null mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70487

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_quantity of

drug/chemical compound

Triiodothyronine

Comment In addition to diabetes and polycystic kidney disease, patients with aberrant Glis3 expression also develop congenital hypothyroidism that is accompanied by reduced levels of T3 and T4 and elevated blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin. Similarly, hypothyroidism was observed in Glis3-null mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70488

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_quantity of

drug/chemical compound

Thyroxine

Comment In addition to diabetes and polycystic kidney disease, patients with aberrant Glis3 expression also develop congenital hypothyroidism that is accompanied by reduced levels of T3 and T4 and elevated blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin. Similarly, hypothyroidism was observed in Glis3-null mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70489

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_quantity of

complex/PPI

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Comment In addition to diabetes and polycystic kidney disease, patients with aberrant Glis3 expression also develop congenital hypothyroidism that is accompanied by reduced levels of T3 and T4 and elevated blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin. Similarly, hypothyroidism was observed in Glis3-null mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70490

gene/protein

GLIS3

affects_quantity of

gene/protein

TG

Comment In humans, a mutation in the Glis2 gene has been linked to the development of nephronophthisis (NPHP), a recessive cystic kidney disease.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 70491

gene/protein

GLIS2

affects_activity of