General Information:

Id: 2,035
Diseases: Alzheimer disease - [OMIM]
Homo sapiens
brain tissue from AD patients with severe CAA
article
Reference: Schrag M et al.(2011) Effect of cerebral amyloid angiopathy on brain iron, copper, and zinc in Alzheimers disease. J. Alzheimers Dis. 24: 137-149 [PMID: 21187585]

Interaction Information:

Comment Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a vascular lesion associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) present in up to 95% of AD patients and produces MRI-detectable microbleeds in many of these patients.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16166

increases_activity of

producing MRI-detectable microbleeds in many of the patients
Comment Patients with severe CAA had significantly higher non-heme iron levels compared to AD patients without evidence of vascular amyloid-beta. Histologically, iron was deposited in the walls of large CAA-affected vessels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16167

increases_quantity of

drug/chemical compound

non-heme Iron

in patients with severe CAA; compared to AD patients
Comment Patients with severe CAA had significantly higher non-heme iron levels compared to AD patients without evidence of vascular amyloid-beta. Histologically, iron was deposited in the walls of large CAA-affected vessels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16168

drug/chemical compound

Iron, non-heme

is localized in

tissue/cell line

blood vessel wall

of large CAA-affected vessels
Comment Zinc levels were significantly elevated in grey matter in both the CAA and non-CAA AD tissue, but no vascular staining was noted in CAA cases.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16169

increases_quantity of

drug/chemical compound

Zn2+

in both the CAA and non-CAA AD tissue
Comment Copper levels were decreased in both CAA and non-CAA AD tissues and copper was found to be prominently deposited on the vasculature in CAA.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16171

decreases_quantity of

drug/chemical compound

Copper

in both CAA and non-CAA AD tissues
Comment Copper levels were decreased in both CAA and non-CAA AD tissues and copper was found to be prominently deposited on the vasculature in CAA.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16172

drug/chemical compound

Copper

is localized in

tissue/cell line

vasculature

in CAA
Comment Iron is deposited on arterioles in cerebral amyloid angiopathic brain.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16173

drug/chemical compound

Iron

is localized in

tissue/cell line

arteriole

in CAA
Comment Heme degradation enzymes are induced in cerebral amyloid angiopathic brain.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16174

increases_activity of

in CAA brain
Comment One isoform each of heme oxygenase (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BLVD R B) are substantially elevated in tissue with severe CAA compared to both normal control tissue and AD tissue without CAA.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16175

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

HMOX1

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for HMOX1
Comment One isoform each of heme oxygenase (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BLVD R B) are substantially elevated in tissue with severe CAA compared to both normal control tissue and AD tissue without CAA.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16177

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

BLVRB

in tissue; with severe CAA
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for BLVRB
Comment Hypothesis: Increased iron in AD brain is primarily a result of microbleeding.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16182

none selected

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for or
Comment Biliverdin reductase A levels were unchanged.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16187

NOT affects_quantity of

gene/protein

BLVRA

in CAA
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for BLVRA
Comment The AD neocortex is frequently stated to contain increased iron levels at the tissue level.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16308

increases_activity of

in the AD neocortex
Comment BLVD R B perivascular staining in AD/CAA cases was frequently observed and the staining extended into the parenchyma a considerable distance from the vessels.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16310

gene/protein

BLVRB

is localized in

tissue/cell line

parenchyma

in AD/CAA cases
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for BLVRB
Comment Zinc levels were significantly elevated in grey matter in both the CAA and non-CAA AD tissue, but no vascular staining was noted in CAA cases.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16311

drug/chemical compound

Zn2+

is localized in

tissue/cell line

cerebral gray matter

in both the CAA and non-CAA AD tissue
Comment Both CAA and AD-only group had significantly lower levels of copper in the white matter than the controls.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 16312

decreases_quantity of

drug/chemical compound

Copper

in cerebral white matter