General Information:

Id: 1,873
Diseases: Diabetes mellitus, type II - [OMIM]
Insulin resistance
Homo sapiens
BTO:0001370 THP-1 cell
article
Reference: Bunn RC et al.(2010) Palmitate and insulin synergistically induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes. Cardiovasc Diabetol 9: 73 [PMID: 21054880]

Interaction Information:

Comment THP-1 cells that had been incubated with palmitate, a 16 carbon saturated fatty acid, secreted significantly more IL-6 and TNF-alpha into the media compared to media from control cells incubated with BSA lacking bound NEFA.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14217

drug/chemical compound

Palmitic acid

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

IL6

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for Palmitic acid or IL6
Comment THP-1 cells that had been incubated with palmitate, a 16 carbon saturated fatty acid, secreted significantly more IL-6 and TNF-alpha into the media compared to media from control cells incubated with BSA lacking bound NEFA.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14220

drug/chemical compound

Palmitic acid

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

TNF

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for Palmitic acid or TNF
Comment Stearate, an 18 carbon saturated fatty acid, also stimulated IL-6 release, but did not increase the amount of TNF-alpha released over that released from untreated or BSA-treated control cells.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14222

drug/chemical compound

Stearic acid

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

IL6

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for Stearic acid or IL6
Comment Stearate, an 18 carbon saturated fatty acid, also stimulated IL-6 release, but did not increase the amount of TNF-alpha released over that released from untreated or BSA-treated control cells.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14223

drug/chemical compound

Stearic acid

NOT increases_quantity of

gene/protein

TNF

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for Stearic acid or TNF
Comment Palmitate metabolism via the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway, ceramide biosynthetic pathway, or beta-oxidation pathway is necessary for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in monocytes.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14225

process

palmitate metabolic process

increases_expression of

gene/protein

IL6

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IL6
Comment Palmitate metabolism via the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway, ceramide biosynthetic pathway, or beta-oxidation pathway is necessary for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in monocytes.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14294

process

palmitate metabolic process

increases_expression of

gene/protein

TNF

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for TNF
Comment Palmitate metabolism via the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway, ceramide biosynthetic pathway, or beta-oxidation pathway is necessary for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in monocytes.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14296

increases_expression of

gene/protein

IL6

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IL6
Comment Palmitate metabolism via the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway, ceramide biosynthetic pathway, or beta-oxidation pathway is necessary for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in monocytes.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14297

increases_expression of

gene/protein

TNF

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for TNF
Comment Mitochondrial oxidation or ceramide generation is not necessary for induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha by palmitate.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14298

NOT increases_expression of

gene/protein

IL6

if induced by palmitate
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IL6
Comment Mitochondrial oxidation or ceramide generation is not necessary for induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha by palmitate.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14300

NOT increases_expression of

gene/protein

TNF

if induced by palmitate
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for TNF
Comment Mitochondrial oxidation or ceramide generation is not necessary for induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha by palmitate.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14301

NOT increases_expression of

gene/protein

IL6

if induced by palmitate
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IL6
Comment Mitochondrial oxidation or ceramide generation is not necessary for induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha by palmitate.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14302

NOT increases_expression of

gene/protein

TNF

if induced by palmitate
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for TNF
Comment Monocytes incubated with insulin and palmitate together produced more IL-6 mRNA and protein, and more TNF-alpha protein, compared to monocytes incubated with palmitate alone. Incubation of monocytes with insulin alone did not affect the production of IL-6 or TNF-alpha.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14304

complex/PPI

Insulin

increases_expression of

gene/protein

IL6

if IL6 expression is induced by palmitate
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IL6
Comment Monocytes incubated with insulin and palmitate together produced more IL-6 mRNA and protein, and more TNF-alpha protein, compared to monocytes incubated with palmitate alone. Incubation of monocytes with insulin alone did not affect the production of IL-6 or TNF-alpha.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14309

complex/PPI

Insulin

increases_expression of

gene/protein

TNF

if TNF expression is induced by palmitate
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for TNF
Comment Both PI3K-Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways are important for IL-6 induction by palmitate.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14310

affects_expression of

gene/protein

IL6

if IL6 expression is induced by palmitate
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IL6
Comment Both PI3K-Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways are important for IL-6 induction by palmitate.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 14321

process

MEK/ERK signaling

affects_expression of

gene/protein

IL6

if IL6 expression is induced by palmitate
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IL6