General Information:

Id: 1,267
Diseases: Diabetes mellitus, type II - [OMIM]
Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic
Insulin resistance
Mus musculus
male
article
Reference: Kang K et al.(2008) Adipocyte-derived Th2 cytokines and myeloid PPARdelta regulate macrophage polarization and insulin sensitivity Cell Metab. 6: 485-495 [PMID: 18522830]

Interaction Information:

Comment Recombinant IL-13 increased macrophage Ppard expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8594

gene/protein

IL13

increases_expression of

gene/protein

PPARD

in macrophage
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment Impaired insulin signal transduction, determined by insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, was found in WAT but not liver or muscle of PPARdelta-/- mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8599

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_activity of

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment Impaired insulin signal transduction, determined by insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, was found in WAT but not liver or muscle of PPARdelta-/- mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8601

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_phosphorylation of

gene/protein

AKT1

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or AKT1
Comment In PPARdelta-/- mice insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (IRbeta) was dramatically reduced in WAT. In addition, the level of phospho-STAT6 was decreased, whereas JNK activity was increased.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8602

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_phosphorylation of

in white adipose tissue; at Tyr residues of IRbeta
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment In PPARdelta-/- mice insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (IRbeta) was dramatically reduced in WAT. In addition, the level of phospho-STAT6 was decreased, whereas JNK activity was increased.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8603

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_phosphorylation of

gene/protein

STAT6

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment In PPARdelta-/- mice insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (IRbeta) was dramatically reduced in WAT. In addition, the level of phospho-STAT6 was decreased, whereas JNK activity was increased.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8608

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_activity of

gene/protein

MAPK8

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or MAPK8
Comment Myeloid-specific PPARD-/- mice develop insulin resistance.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8628

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_activity of

disease

Insulin resistance

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8629

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

SLC2A4

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8630

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

PLIN

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8631

gene/protein

SLC2A4

affects_activity of

process

lipid storage

in white adipose tissue
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8632

gene/protein

PLIN

affects_activity of

process

lipid storage

in white adipose tissue
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8633

gene/protein

SLC2A4

affects_activity of

in white adipose tissue
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8634

gene/protein

PLIN

affects_activity of

in white adipose tissue
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8635

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_expression of

gene/protein

FASN

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or FASN
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8636

gene/protein

FASN

increases_activity of

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for FASN
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8637

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_expression of

gene/protein

CPT1A

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or CPT1A
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8641

gene/protein

CPT1A

affects_activity of

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for CPT1A
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8642

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_expression of

gene/protein

LEP

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment PPARD-/- white adipose tissue showed the presence of many small adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Examination of relevant metabolic genes revealed that the expression of the genes encoding GLUT4 and perilipin, a lipid droplet-coating protein controlling lipid storage and lipolysis, was downregulated, whereas genes encoding lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [Fas]), fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 [Cpt1]), and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were unaffected.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8643

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_expression of

gene/protein

ADIPOQ

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8644

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

CLEC10A

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8645

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

MGL2

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8646

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

MRC2

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8680

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

CCL2

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or CCL2
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8681

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

TNF

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or TNF
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8682

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

IL6

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or IL6
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8683

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

ADGRE1

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8684

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_quantity of

gene/protein

TNF

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or TNF
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8685

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_quantity of

gene/protein

IL13

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment The M2 markers Mgl1, Mgl2, and Mrc2 were suppressed and the proinflammatory mediators Mcp-1, Tnfa, and Il-6 as well as the pan-macrophage marker F4/80 were upregulated in WAT of PPARD-/- mice. Furthermore, TNFalpha protein levels as determined by ELISA were higher, whereas IL-13 and IL-4 levels were similar in Mac-PPARD-/- WAT, suggesting that the changes in inflammatory status were not due to differences in the production of WAT-derived Th2 cytokines.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8686

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_quantity of

gene/protein

IL4

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment Adipocytes from PPARD-/- mice exhibited a 2-fold increase in basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8687

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_activity of

in white adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment Assessment of liver samples revealed that hepatosteatosis was more profound in PPARD-/- mice compared to WT controls, which correlated well with the increased hepatic triglyceride content.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8688

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_activity of

disease

Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment The expression of lipogenic genes (Fas and Acc2) was induced in livers of PPARD-/- mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8690

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

FASN

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or FASN
Comment The expression of lipogenic genes (Fas and Acc2) was induced in livers of PPARD-/- mice.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8691

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

ACACB

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or ACACB
Comment In livers of PPARD-/- mice the oxidative metabolism genes CPT1, AOX, Ndufab1, and COX3 remained unchanged.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8692

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_expression of

gene/protein

CPT1A

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or CPT1A
Comment In livers of PPARD-/- mice the oxidative metabolism genes CPT1, AOX, Ndufab1, and COX3 remained unchanged.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8699

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_expression of

gene/protein

ACOX1

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or ACOX1
Comment In livers of PPARD-/- mice the oxidative metabolism genes CPT1, AOX, Ndufab1, and COX3 remained unchanged.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8701

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_expression of

gene/protein

NDUFAB1

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or NDUFAB1
Comment In livers of PPARD-/- mice the oxidative metabolism genes CPT1, AOX, Ndufab1, and COX3 remained unchanged.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8702

gene/protein

PPARD

NOT affects_expression of

gene/protein

MT-CO3

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or MT-CO3
Comment In livers of PPARD-/- mice Il-1b and F4/80 were upregulated, and M2 markers, including arginase 1 (Arg1) and Mrc2, were downregulated.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8704

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

IL1B

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or IL1B
Comment In livers of PPARD-/- mice Il-1b and F4/80 were upregulated, and M2 markers, including arginase 1 (Arg1) and Mrc2, were downregulated.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8705

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

ADGRE1

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD
Comment In livers of PPARD-/- mice Il-1b and F4/80 were upregulated, and M2 markers, including arginase 1 (Arg1) and Mrc2, were downregulated.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8706

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

ARG1

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD or ARG1
Comment In livers of PPARD-/- mice Il-1b and F4/80 were upregulated, and M2 markers, including arginase 1 (Arg1) and Mrc2, were downregulated.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 8707

gene/protein

PPARD

affects_expression of

gene/protein

MRC2

in liver
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARD