General Information:

Id: 1,092 (click here to show other Interactions for entry)
Diseases: Diabetes mellitus, type II - [OMIM]
Insulin resistance
Obesity - [OMIM]
Mammalia
article
Reference: de Luca C and Olefsky JM(2008) Inflammation and insulin resistance FEBS Lett. 582: 97-105 [PMID: 18053812]

Interaction Information:

Comment In skeletal muscle insulin promotes glucose uptake by stimulating translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane, and impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling results in decreased glucose disposal.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 6923

gene/protein

SLC2A4

increases_activity of

process

glucose import

in skeletal muscle
Comment In skeletal muscle insulin promotes glucose uptake by stimulating translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane, and impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling results in decreased glucose disposal.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 6925

disease

Insulin resistance

decreases_activity of

process

glucose import

in skeletal muscle
Comment The insulin signaling cascade branches off into two main pathways, the first is the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT (also called protein kinase B (PKB)) pathway which is largely responsible for insulin action on glucose uptake, as well as other metabolic actions of insulin, including the suppression of gluconeogenesis. The second pathway is the Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which mediates gene expression, but also interacts with the PI3K-AKT pathway to control cell growth and differentiation.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 6966
Comment An additional mediator of insulin action is the heterotrimeric G protein, G-alpha-q/11. Phosphorylation of G-alpha-q/11 by the insulin receptor activates PI3K, thus, stimulating GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake. This signaling pathway is inhibited by G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (Grk2) which binds and inhibits the G-alpha subunit of G-alpha-q/11.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7043

complex/PPI

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

increases_activity of

process

glucose import

Comment The proto-oncogene product, Cbl, is recruited to the insulin receptor by the adapter protein Cbl associated protein (CAP) and the CAP/Cbl complex can mediate cell surface translocation of GLUT4 independent of PI3K activity.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7062

complex/PPI

CAP-CBL complex

increases_activity of

process

glucose import

via translocation of GLUT4 to the membrane
Comment Treatment of cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes with Tnf leads to reduced expression of the insulin receptor, IRS1 and Glut4 genes, as well as a decrease in insulin stimulated glucose uptake.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7092

gene/protein

TNF

decreases_activity of

process

glucose import

in adipose tissue
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for TNF
Comment Cbl-associated protein (CAP), known as a positive regulator of glucose transport into cells, plays a role in obesity-related inflammation due to its function in maintaining normal macrophage activity.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7303

gene/protein

SORBS1

increases_activity of

process

glucose import