General Information:

Id: 1,092 (click here to show other Interactions for entry)
Diseases: Diabetes mellitus, type II - [OMIM]
Insulin resistance
Obesity - [OMIM]
Mammalia
article
Reference: de Luca C and Olefsky JM(2008) Inflammation and insulin resistance FEBS Lett. 582: 97-105 [PMID: 18053812]

Interaction Information:

Comment Socs1 and Socs3, which are induced in inflammation, promote the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of IRS1.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 6985

increases_activity of

gene/protein

SOCS1

Comment Socs1 and Socs3, which are induced in inflammation, promote the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of IRS1.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 6999

increases_activity of

gene/protein

SOCS3

Comment The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP), a non-specific acute phase reactant, is commonly elevated in human insulin resistant states.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7067

increases_activity of

phenotype

increased circulating C-reactive protein level

Comment Adipokines such as resistin, leptin and adiponectin, which are secreted by adipocytes, can also affect inflammation and insulin sensitivity.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7069

gene/protein

RETN

affects_activity of

Comment Adipokines such as resistin, leptin and adiponectin, which are secreted by adipocytes, can also affect inflammation and insulin sensitivity.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7071

gene/protein

LEP

affects_activity of

Comment Adipokines such as resistin, leptin and adiponectin, which are secreted by adipocytes, can also affect inflammation and insulin sensitivity.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7073

gene/protein

ADIPOQ

affects_activity of

Comment Overnutrition and obesity are often accompanied by elevations in tissue and circulating FFA concentrations, and saturated FFAs can directly activate pro-inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells, adipocytes and myeloid-derived cells. The result of these obesity-induced physiologic events is the development of systemic inflammation.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7083

increases_activity of

in vascular endothelial cells, in adipose tissue, in myeloid-derived cells
Comment Il-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and lymphocytes. Il-10 exerts its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting Tnf-induced NF-kappa-B activation by reducing IKK activity.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7274

complex/PPI

NF-kappaB complex

increases_activity of

Comment Il-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and lymphocytes. Il-10 exerts its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting Tnf-induced NF-kappa-B activation by reducing IKK activity.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7276

gene/protein

IL10

decreases_activity of

Comment Newly recruited adipose tissue macrophages are pro-inflammatory, as indicated by increased expression of Il6, Nos2 and Ccr2, while resident adipose tissue macrophages are antiinflammatory.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7291

tissue/cell line

recruited adipose tissue macrophage

increases_activity of

in adipose tissue
Comment Macrophages are also capable of undergoing a phenotypic switch from an M1 state, which was defined as the 'classically activated' pro-inflammatory macrophage, to the M2 state or the 'alternatively activated' non-inflammatory cell. The M2 classification involves cells that express arginase and the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il-10 and have a high capacity to repair damaged tissue. M1 cells express inflammatory cytokines and the cell surface marker Cd11c. Adipose tissue from obese mice contains proportionately more M1 macrophages, whereas, lean adipose tissue contains more M2 macrophages, and increased M1 content positively correlates with inflammation, macrophage infiltration and insulin resistance.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7302

tissue/cell line

M1 macrophage

increases_activity of

Comment Cbl-associated protein (CAP), known as a positive regulator of glucose transport into cells, plays a role in obesity-related inflammation due to its function in maintaining normal macrophage activity.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7304

gene/protein

SORBS1

increases_activity of

if inflammatory response is obesity-related
Comment In addition to adipocytes, Pparg is also expressed in macrophages where it negatively regulates a large set of inflammatory pathway genes by a unique transrepression mechanism.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7317

gene/protein

PPARG

decreases_activity of

in macrophages
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for PPARG
Comment Jnk1 signaling in macrophages is a key component of macrophage function and a mediator of the macrophage inflammatory response which ultimately leads to insulin resistance.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 7319

gene/protein

MAPK8

affects_activity of

in macrophages
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for MAPK8
Comment Newly recruited adipose tissue macrophages are pro-inflammatory, as indicated by increased expression of Il6, Nos2 and Ccr2, while resident adipose tissue macrophages are antiinflammatory.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 13444

tissue/cell line

resident adipose tissue macrophage

decreases_activity of

in adipose tissue
Comment Macrophages are also capable of undergoing a phenotypic switch from an M1 state, which was defined as the 'classically activated' pro-inflammatory macrophage, to the M2 state or the 'alternatively activated' non-inflammatory cell. The M2 classification involves cells that express arginase and the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il-10 and have a high capacity to repair damaged tissue. M1 cells express inflammatory cytokines and the cell surface marker Cd11c. Adipose tissue from obese mice contains proportionately more M1 macrophages, whereas, lean adipose tissue contains more M2 macrophages, and increased M1 content positively correlates with inflammation, macrophage infiltration and insulin resistance.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 45979

tissue/cell line

M2 macrophage

NOT increases_activity of

Comment Macrophages are also capable of undergoing a phenotypic switch from an M1 state, which was defined as the 'classically activated' pro-inflammatory macrophage, to the M2 state or the 'alternatively activated' non-inflammatory cell. The M2 classification involves cells that express arginase and the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il-10 and have a high capacity to repair damaged tissue. M1 cells express inflammatory cytokines and the cell surface marker Cd11c. Adipose tissue from obese mice contains proportionately more M1 macrophages, whereas, lean adipose tissue contains more M2 macrophages, and increased M1 content positively correlates with inflammation, macrophage infiltration and insulin resistance.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 45984

tissue/cell line

M1 macrophage

increases_activity of